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Assembly Instructions: Kit #8

Motor, assembled from the Kit #8 (transistor shown with an optional heat sink)

Difficulty level: 3 (more difficult, requires the use of a soldering iron)

Parts included in this kit

 Printer-friendly assembly instructions in pdf format.

Kit #8 includes all the parts necessary to assemble any of the 4 different types of electric motors described on this site.

If you want to purchase one of these inexpensive and fairly simple kits, click here.

If you want to understand how each motor works, see their corresponding pages: Reed Switch Motor, Reed Switch Motor With Transistor, Hall Effect Motor, Motor With Optical Control.

Read all instructions carefully and check the Safety Rules before you start!

  Instructions

If you purchased Kit #8 you have two choices:


  1. Insert the T-pin into one of the caps.
  2. Insert T-pin into the cap

  3. Insert the rotor core into the same cap as shown below. Apply some pressure to push the rotor core approximately 1/2" (10-12mm) into the cap.
  4. Insert rotor core into the cap

  5. Put in the wooden insert.
  6. Put in round wooden insert

  7. Insert the pushpin into the other cap.
  8. Pushpin in another cap

  9. Put everything together as shown below. Push the caps towards each other until they cannot move any more. The T-pin must be secured firmly. This process may require some strength. Be careful not to bend the T-pin or poke yourself.
  10. Assembled rotor

  11. Glue the magnets to the flat surfaces of the rotor core with the letter ‘S’ facing outside. Your kit includes 4 magnets. If you want to try 2 magnets first, glue them to the opposite sides. Straighten the T-pin if necessary. You can check it by spinning the rotor between your thumb and index finger. Again, be very careful.

    All kits have magnets with the South pole marked. If you want this side to look better you may cut out the white glossy round labels that are provided and paste them to the marked sides. You may do it before attaching the magnets to the rotor. It is recommended to use regular white glue or a glue stick on the labels for better results.
  12. Rotor with magnets attached

  13. Cut out the disk (supplied with the kit). Poke a hole in the center, which is marked by a cross. Apply some glue to the middle of the disk and glue it to the cap with a shorter axle (with the pushpin). Slide two sequins as shown below. The sequins act as a spacer between the disk and the stand and work better if their convex surfaces face outwards.
  14. Adding a disk to a rotor

  15. Insert the rotor into the stands marked with blue and silver stars as shown below. Hold the stands and test to see if rotor spins freely. Make final adjustments to the T-pin if necessary.
  16. Rotor on stands

  17. Glue the stand with the silver star to the board. Try to cover the corresponding star completely. Align the marks on the stand with the line on the board as shown below. Note that the star's position and the marks are approximate, sometimes you need to move the stands slightly to achieve the lowest friction. Keep in mind that super glue bonds instantly, so try to be as accurate as possible in these procedures.
  18. Rotor on board (shown without disk)

  19. Insert the rotor into the stand marked with the blue star. Glue it to the board the same way as the first stand. Leave a gap of about 1/16" (1/32", or 0.8mm on each side) between the rotor and the stands. Test again to see if the rotor spins freely. At this time, or later, you may take the rubber plug and fix it as shown below. You can glue different things to the outer flat surface of the plug. Try to be accurate, redo this step if necessary.
  20. Rotor on stands with rubber plug attached

  21. If you purchased the experimentation kit #2 or #3, instead of steps 11-13 for this kit, follow these instructions. After that, please, come back to this page and continue the assembly instructions from step 14.

    Otherwise, insert the nail into the stand with the green star. If it is loose you may apply glue as shown below.
  22. Nail, glued to electromagnet stand

  23. Cut two pieces of wire 9" (22-23cm) long. Leave them for now - they will be used for connecting the reed switch. All remaining wire on the spool should be used to wrap around the area between the tape and the head of the nail.
    • Tape one end of wire leaving about 6" (15cm) open. You may use the tape that is already on the nail.
    • Wind all the wire in one rotational direction (either clockwise or counterclockwise) moving back and forth along the nail. Try to be as accurate as possible. Do not let the wire slide off the end of the electromagnet.
    • Tape the second end of the wire using the same tape. Both open ends of wire should be about 6" (15cm) long.
    • Clean about 3/8" (10mm) of the wire tips with fine sandpaper (included) or a sharp knife to remove the insulation.

    Electromagnet

    Test the electromagnet! Connect one wire to "+" and another wire to "-" of the battery. If electromagnet is assembled correctly the head of the nail should attract metal objects such as paper clips, small nails, knife blade, etc.
  24. Glue the electromagnet to the board as shown below. Turn the rotor slowly to see if the magnets hit the electromagnet. If one or more do, move the electromagnet back until there is a 1/16" (1.5mm) gap between the electromagnet and the closest magnet on the rotor.
  25. Electromagnet position

  26. Locate the optointerrupter pins as shown on the following picture. It is very important to identify all four pins properly. Wrong connection in the motor will destroy the optointerrupter.
  27. Optointerrupter pins

  28. Solder 4 pieces of the hook-up wire to the optointerrupter pins. If your kit includes 1 large piece of hook-up wire, cut it into 4 pieces of equal length. Strip about 3/8" (10mm) of insulation on each end of these wire pieces using a sharp knife. You may bend the optointerrupter leads slightly to move them apart from each other. If you did not use a soldering iron before it is a good idea to practice on soldering two pieces of wire to each other. See the Links page for tips on soldering.

    Wire colors shown on the picture are used for reference only. You may use different colors or even one color. Just make sure that all the connections correspond to the diagram of the motor as shown in step 21.

    IMPORTANT: Do not overheat the optointerrupter when you solder it. The soldering iron heat may destroy this sensitive device. If you were unable to attach the wire in 3 seconds, let the optointerrupter to cool off, then try it again. Only solder one lead at a time and allow the device to cool before soldering the next connection. Use the same precautions when soldering the transistor.
  29. Soldering wires to the optointerrupter

  30. Locate two marked lines and glue the optointerrupter to the square wooden stand as shown below:
  31. Attaching an optointerrupter to a stand

  32. Glue the optointerrupter stand to the board as shown in the picture. If you rotate the rotor, the disk blades should be in the middle of the slot as deep as possible without hitting the optointerrupter. Wait for the glue to dry. Hold the middle part of the rotor and rotate the cap that has the disk attached until one of the blades is inside the slot. You will need to experiment with it later to find the best position of the disk to provide a good start and the best speed.
  33. Optointerrupter position

  34. Attach the self-sticking felt pad to the reed switch stand as shown. This soft pad decreases the reed switch vibration thus decreasing the sound it generates.
  35. Felt pad position on universal stand

  36. You may add a ZNR if you want to experiment with higher voltages or make more reliable motor. The ZNR is a small electronic part that absorbs the spark inside the reed switch. In our experiments the ZNR provided an additional reed switch protection even in the motor with the transistor.

    The ZNR is not required for the motor to work. You may also add it later. However if you decided to add the ZNR at this time skip this step and go to step 20.

    Take the two pieces of magnet wire you cut earlier and clean the wire tips using sandpaper to remove the insulation. Clean about 3/8" (10mm) on both ends of each wire piece. Solder these wire pieces to a reed switch as shown in the first picture. If you did not use a soldering iron before it is a good idea to practice on soldering two pieces of wire to each other. See the Links page for tips on soldering.

    Insert the reed switch wires into the universal reed switch/Hall effect switch stand. Be careful not to break the reed switch, it is very fragile. Twist the wires as shown below:
  37. Soldering wire to a reed switch

    Reed switch on universal stand

  38. If you decided to add the ZNR at this time follow these instructions otherwise skip this step:

    Take the two pieces of magnet wire you cut earlier and clean the wire tips using sandpaper to remove the insulation. Clean about 3/8" (10mm) on both ends of each wire piece. Solder these wire pieces to a reed switch and the ZNR as shown in the first picture. If you did not use a soldering iron before it is a good idea to practice on soldering two pieces of wire to each other. See the Links page for tips on soldering.

    Insert the reed switch wires into the universal reed switch/Hall effect switch stand. Be careful not to break the reed switch, it is very fragile. Twist the wires as shown below:
  39. Soldering wire to a reed switch with the ZNR

    Reed switch with the ZNR on universal stand

  40. Bend the leads of the Hall effect switch as shown below. If your kit includes 1 large piece of hook-up wire, cut 4 pieces with the length of 8-9" (20-23cm) each. Strip about 3/8" (10mm) of insulation on each end of these wire pieces using a sharp knife. Solder three wire pieces to the Hall effect switch.

    IMPORTANT: Do not overheat the Hall effect switch when you solder it. The soldering iron heat may destroy this sensitive device. If you were unable to attach the wire in 3 seconds, let the Hall effect IC to cool off, then try it again. Only solder one lead at a time and allow the device to cool before soldering the next connection. Use the same precautions when soldering the transistor.
  41. Soldering wires to the Hall effect switch

  42. Bend the Hall effect switch leads 90 degrees with branded side facing outside:
  43. Hall effect switch

  44. Insert the Hall effect switch into the universal stand. For simplicity it is shown without the reed switch, which will be located below the Hall effect switch. Make sure that the leads of the Hall effect IC do not touch each other. You may add a drop of glue to keep the IC and wires in place. Glue only the leads, do not glue IC case to the stand.
    IMPORTANT: It is recommended to glue the Hall effect IC to the stand as a last step after the motor is assembled and the best Hall effect switch position is found.
  45. Hall effect switch on stand

  46. Glue the universal stand to the board. The Hall effect switch and reed switch should be located in front of the magnets at the closest distance. Check the rotation of the rotor to make sure that the magnets do not hit any of the switches.
  47. Universal stand position

  48. Attach the battery holder to the board. The battery holder allows you to experiment with 4 different voltage settings (1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6V DC). You will need 4 AA size batteries.

    To understand how the jumper wire works let's take a look at the connections inside the battery holder:
  49. Empty battery holder

    The following diagram shows how to get 1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 Volts using 1, 2, 3, or 4 batteries and a jumper wire shown in blue color. Arrows show the current flow for 1.5, 3, and 4.5 Volts settings. Could you trace the current when all 4 batteries are inserted (there is no jumper wire in this case)?

    Jumper connections

    Insert bare ends of the jumper wire between the spring and plastic case to make a good contact and hold them in place. This is how the jumper wire is actually used for 3 Volts experiments (one end is disconnected and may serve as on/off switch):

    3 Volts jumper wire connection

  50. Locate the base (B), collector (C) and emitter (E) leads on the transistor:
  51. PNP power Darlington transistor

  52. Select the motor you want to assemble and follow its recommended steps. When you want to build another motor unsolder all of the connections first.

A. Reed Switch Motor.

Wiring diagram for Kits #3 and #4

B. Reed Switch Motor With Transistor.

Wiring diagram for Kit #5

C. Motor On A Hall Effect Switch.

Wiring diagram for Kit #6

D. Motor With Optical Control.

Soldering resistors to a transistor

Wiring diagram for the kit #7